Digoxin toxicity level ati. Hx of toxicity or reaction with digoxin, hx of ventrilcular fib...

Oct 27, 2020 · The patient’s digoxin level will need

A 82-year-old male patient with atrial fibrillation and magnesium level of 1 mg/dL. C. A 45-year-old female with potassium level of 4.2 mEq/L. D. A 50-year-old female with a calcium level of 9 mg/dL. B. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Digoxin is part of what family of drugs?*. A. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ... Digoxin is derived from the leaves of a digitalis plant. Digoxin helps make the heart beat stronger and with a more regular rhythm. Digoxin is used to treat heart failure. Digoxin is also used to treat atrial fibrillation, a heart rhythm disorder of the atria (the upper chambers of the heart that allow blood to flow into the heart). WarningsDigoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from Digitalis lanata ( Hollman, 1996). It has been heavily employed when treating a number of heart problems, including …The nurse suspects the client may have toxic levels of digoxin in the bloodstream when what is assessed? Select all that apply. After administering an IV dose of digoxin, the nurse would expect to see effects within what period of time? A) 30 to 120 minutes B) 5 to 30 minutes C) 1 hour D) 2 hoursThe clinical features of toxicity are often non-specific. They commonly include lethargy, confusion and gastrointestinal symptoms (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, …Signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity become more frequent with levels above 2.0 nanograms/ml (2.56 nanomol/l) although there is considerable inter-individual variation. However, in deciding whether a patient's symptoms are due to digoxin, the clinical state, together with serum electrolyte levels and thyroid function are important factors ...2. Heart rate of 68 beats/min. 3. Digoxin level of 0.7 ng/mL. 4. Potassium level of 3.7 mEq/L. Vomiting and diarrhea. Vomiting and diarrhea can lead to hypokalemia, which increases the risk of digoxin toxicity. These symptoms, along with nausea, fatigue, and visual disturbances, also may precede digoxin toxicity and warrant further attention.Digoxin can be used to treat heart failure when symptoms remain despite the use of other drugs. It is also used for atrial fibrillation to reduce the ventricular rate. 1 For heart failure, the recommended range for the serum digoxin concentration has been reduced over the past decade from 0.8–2.0 nanogram/mL to 0.5–0.9 nanogram/mL. 2 This is because of evidence of better outcomes at lower ...Signs and symptoms Digoxin toxicity is often divided into acute or chronic toxicity. In both of these toxicity, cardiac effects are of the greatest concern. With an acute ingestion, …0.5-0.8 ng/mL. What are the signs and symptoms of Digoxin toxicity? Anorexia, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea. Fatigue, Flu-like symptoms. Headache, Blurred/Yellow Vision, Dizziness. Confusion, Delirium. What can Digoxin Toxicity ultimately cause? Heart Block, Rhythm Changes, Death. What is the antidote for Digoxin?Digoxin is a medicine that can help people with certain heart issues. However, reaching and staying at normal digoxin levels can be a challenge. Various factors affect how much of the drug your body absorbs and excretes. Digoxin levels that are too high can be life-threatening. Contents Overview Procedure Details Risks / Benefits Recovery and ...Cardiac glycosides (digitalis preparations including digoxin and digitoxin) are used clinically in two situations: heart failure due to systolic dysfunction, and in certain supraventricular tachyarrhythmias [ 1 ]: The ability to enhance cardiac contractility and modulate neurohumoral activation can lead to symptomatic improvement in systolic ...An overdose of digoxin is very dangerous. If too much or the wrong kind of medicine is taken, call the Poison Control Center right away (1-800-222-1222) or go to the nearest emergency room for treatment. If your child is unconscious or has a seizure, call 911. Store digoxin in its original container and away from direct sunlight or heat.Digoxin is the oldest drug in cardiovascular medicine that is used in current clinical practice 1. The use of digitalis generates changes in the electrocardiogram at therapeutic doses, especially at the level of the ST segment and the T wave. It also decreases heart rate, and in the case of toxicity, it can generate a great variety of arrhythmias.Overview Risks What is digoxin toxicity? Digoxin toxicity happens when you have too much digoxin in your body and it becomes harmful. Digoxin is a medicine that is used to treat heart failure or arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms). Digoxin toxicity can be life-threatening. What increases my risk for digoxin toxicity? Older ageAssess apical pulse regularly for 1 full minute. If rate is less than 60 beats/min, withhold dose and notify doctor. Monitor for signs and symptoms of drug toxicity (nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, arrhythmias, and altered mental status). Monitor ECG and blood levels of digoxin, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and creatinine.Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like A nurse in a provider's office is monitoring serum electrolytes for four older adult clients who take digoxin (Lanoxin) and furosemide (Lasix). Which of the following electrolyte values puts a client at risk for digoxin toxicity? A. Calcium 9.2 mg/dL B. Calcium 10.3 mg/dL C. Potassium 3.4 mg/dL …-Check pulse rate and rhythm before admistration of digoxin and record. Notify the provider if heart rate is less than 60/min in an adult, less than 70/min in children, and less than 90/min in infants. -Administer digoxin at the same time -Evaluate manifestations and the client's digoxin level when toxicity is suspected. Control of heart diseaseDigoxin exhibits its therapeutic and toxic effects by poisoning the sodium-potassium ATPase. The subsequent increase in intracellular sodium leads to increased intracellular calcium by decreasing calcium expulsion through the sodium-calcium cation exchanger.If you're a patient at MSK and you need to reach a provider after 5 p.m., during the weekend, or on a holiday, call 212-639-2000. This information from Lexicomp® explains what you need to know about this medication, including what it’s used for, how to take it, its side effects, and when to call your healthcare provider.Apr 10, 2023 · Digitalis toxicity can be a side effect of digitalis therapy. It may occur when you take too much of the drug at one time. It can also occur when levels of the drug build up for other reasons such as other medical problems you have. The most common prescription form of this medicine is called digoxin. Digitoxin is another form of digitalis. Pathophysiology Digoxin can cause a multitude of dysrhythmias due to: Increased automaticity (increased intracellular …If you suspect ongoing digoxin toxicity, call the clinical biochemist on call for your lab and toxicologist to discuss feasibility and utility of obtaining a free digoxin level. ... digoxin levels of 0.6 – 1.2 nmol/L despite an upper limit of normal within the Calgary region of 2.6 nmol/L Since digoxin is mostly renally cleared, adjusted dosing and close monitoring is …The heart-stopping mechanism of digoxin. Irregular heart rhythm and eventually heart-attack is what makes digoxin poisoning so dangerous. When digoxin enters the body, it binds a transport protein called the sodium-potassium pump situated on heart cells. Binding of digoxin blocks the pump, ultimately resulting in heart muscle …In children, the medication should be withheld if the pulse is less than 70/min. Monitor for toxicity as evidenced by bradycardia, dysrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, or anorexia. Monitor serum digoxin levels. Therapeutic serum. digoxin levels range from 0.8 to 2 mcg/L. Administering Digoxin. Take pulse prior to medication administration. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like aminophylline, carbamazepine, digoxin and more. ... ATI toxic drug levels. 15 terms. amcdermott94.Cardiac dysrhythmias, digoxin toxicity, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, visual disturbances, and increased mortality in women. Second-line drug for HF Treats- Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, and Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia. Watch for vomiting Monitor GI symptoms Monitor digoxin levels frquently Monitor K+ levelsThe incidence of digoxin toxicity increases with age, largely because the two most common conditions that benefit from use of digoxin, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation, are markedly more prevalent in old age. Whether the elderly are more sensitive to the effects of digoxin because of age per se is unclear. ... of these diseases with such …Generally, if an infant's pulse is less than 90/min, the medication should be withheld if the pulse is less than 70/min. Monitor for toxicity as evidence by bradycardia, dysrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, or anorexia. Monitor serum digoxin levels. Therapeutic serum digoxin levels range from 0 - 2 ng/ml. Decrease in severity of HF.Digoxin exhibits its therapeutic and toxic effects by poisoning the sodium-potassium ATPase. The subsequent increase in intracellular sodium leads to increased intracellular calcium by decreasing calcium expulsion through the sodium-calcium cation exchanger.Severe respiratory disease. Hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypercalcaemia, and hypoxia (risk of digitalis toxicity). Renal impairment — reduce dose and monitor plasma …Digoxin undergoes hepatic metabolism independent of CYP-450 system and is renally excreted. Half-life is 1.5-2 days in healthy adults, but can be 4-6 days in patients in renal failure. Digoxin has a narrow therapeutic window, typically 0.5-1.0 ng/mL, with toxicity range beginning at concentrations greater than 2.0 ng/mL.Digoxin is a chemical derived from the plant Digitalis purpurea, more commonly known as foxglove, and belongs to the class of medicines known as cardiac glycosides [1] . Digoxin is used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and provides inotropic activity (i.e. alters the force or energy of the heart muscle’s contractions) in the ...Take as prescribed; possible toxicity from taking too much, decreased effectiveness if taking too little Take pulse before taking med, notify HCP if pulse is below 60bpm Take missed doses within 12 hours of scheduled dose - do not double up Notify HCP if experiencing pulse changes/GI distress Talk to HCP before taking any OTC meds/suplementsSteve Watson Digoxin 21 Cardiac Glycosides. Increase force and efficiency of myocardial contraction decrease HR. IV- give over at least 5 min. Diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, dopamine, verapamil. clients with disturbances in ventricular rhythm second and third degree heart block Digoxin ToxicitySigns and symptoms of digoxin toxicity become more frequent with levels above 2.0 nanograms/ml (2.56 nanomol/l) although there is considerable inter-individual variation. However, in deciding whether a patient's symptoms are due to digoxin, the clinical state, together with serum electrolyte levels and thyroid function are important factors ...Digoxin ati med template.pdf. ... anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Hemat: thrombocytopenia Metabolic: electrolyte imbalances with acute digoxin toxicity Medication Administration For ... spirilactone, verapamil, amphotericin B, overuse of laxatives, and amiodarone may increase levels and lead to toxicity. Antineoplastics, activated ...Overview Risks What is digoxin toxicity? Digoxin toxicity happens when you have too much digoxin in your body and it becomes harmful. Digoxin is a medicine …Digoxin is the oldest drug in cardiovascular medicine that is used in current clinical practice 1.. The use of digitalis generates changes in the electrocardiogram at therapeutic doses, especially at the level of the ST segment and the T wave.. It also decreases heart rate, and in the case of toxicity, it can generate a great variety of …Cardiac dysrhythmias, digoxin toxicity, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, visual disturbances, and increased mortality in women. Second-line drug for HF Treats- Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, and Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia. Watch for vomiting Monitor GI symptoms Monitor digoxin levels frquently Monitor K+ levelsHesi pharm review 1. Digoxin (Lanoxin): antiarrhythmic Used to treat heart failure, it slows ventricular rate, increases the force of myocardial contraction Increases cardiac output and slows heart rate The nurse must assess the patient's renal function and monitor the patient frequently for drug toxicity. Digoxin (Digitek) has a large volume of drug distribution and stays in the body for a ...Digoxin levels of less than 0.5 ng/mL have been associated with reduced efficacy, while levels above 2 ng/mL have been associated with toxicity without increased benefit. However, digoxin levels should always be interpreted taking into account what effects the drug is having and any symptoms of toxicity.inhibits NA/K-ATPase, which increases intracellular calcium. it leads to a slower and stronger heart rate with increased contraction. what needs to be monitored when a patient is taking digoxin? therapeutic levels, digoxin has a very narrow range. levels should be drawn 12-24 hours after last dose. 5-7 days after dosage change. compliance changes.14 Ιουν 2023 ... It is this case that prompted a retrospective chart review (RCR) of patients admitted with toxic serum digoxin levels >2 ng/ml and to evaluate ...... toxic levels at above 2.5 ng/mL. Toxicity may occur with plasma digoxin levels within therapeutic range, especially in chronic overdose. Diagnostic Test ...Signs and symptoms Digoxin toxicity is often divided into acute or chronic toxicity. In both of these toxicity, cardiac effects are of the greatest concern. With an acute ingestion, …instruct pt to take as directed only at the same time each day, if missed dose take within 12hrs of scheduled dose or omit. do not double dose. teach pt to assess pulse and to contact md if HR &lt;60 or &gt;100. parents need to be taught that bradycardia is first sign of toxicity for kids. Moreover, toxicity can occur within the 'therapeutic range'; old patients are especially at risk of developing digoxin toxicity. Toxicity is likely above 2 ng/ml and almost invariable over 3 ng/ml. The difference between toxicity and therapeutic range is small for digoxin and is determined to be between 0.5-2 ng/mL (2)Emphasize importance of taking digoxin exactly as prescribed. Warn about possible toxicity from taking too much and decreased effectiveness from takin too little. Instruct pt to take digoxin at the same time everyday to help increase compliance. Advise pt to consult prescriber before using other drugs including OTC products. The clinical manifestations digoxin toxicity are the same in infants, children, and adults, and the treatment is the same across all these age groups. [] Treatment of digoxin toxicity should be guided by the patient’s signs and symptoms and the specific toxic effects and not necessarily by digoxin levels alone.Digoxin toxicity 5.0 (1 review) Overview Click the card to flip 👆 Life-threatening condition that results from intoxication with digoxin from use in long-term therapy, accidental or intentional overdose, or ingestion of naturally occurring compounds containing cardiac glycosides (such as foxglove, oleander, and lily-of-the valley)disturbed color perception. double vision. halos around lights. headache. lack of feeling or emotion. loss of appetite. night blindness. overbright appearance of lights. swelling of the breasts or breast soreness in both females and males.Serum potassium levels should also be closely monitored for patients on digoxin because hypokalemia increases the effect of digoxin and can result in digoxin toxicity. Normal potassium level is 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L, and a result less than 3.5 should be immediately reported to the provider. Nurses should closely monitor signs of digoxin toxicity.In the absence of cardiac dysrhythmias, toxic digoxin levels, or hyperkalemia, patients may be discharged with appropriate follow-up care. Patients with chronic toxicity and noncardiac symptoms may be discharged if factors that led to the toxicity have been corrected (eg, electrolyte disorders, dehydration, drug-drug …Digoxin Toxicity. Digoxin overdose and toxicity can happen in both adult and pediatric patients. The clinical manifestations may present similarly with the adverse reactions but may be more recurrent and worse. Clinical manifestations of digoxin toxicity may occur and be frequent for serum levels above 2 ng/ml.-Check pulse rate and rhythm before admistration of digoxin and record. Notify the provider if heart rate is less than 60/min in an adult, less than 70/min in children, and less than 90/min in infants. -Administer digoxin at the same time -Evaluate manifestations and the client's digoxin level when toxicity is suspected. Control of heart diseaseIn children, the medication should be withheld if the pulse is less than 70/min. Monitor for toxicity as evidenced by bradycardia, dysrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, or anorexia. Monitor serum digoxin levels. Therapeutic serum. digoxin levels range from 0.8 to 2 mcg/L. Administering Digoxin. Take pulse prior to medication administration. High levels of digoxin in the body. Confusion Irregular pulses Loss of appetite Nausea, vomiting, diarhea Vision disturbances. Blood chemistry ECG Digoxin test, BUN creatinine. Hyper/hypothyroidism Hypoxemia Renal insufficiency Myocardial infarction. Confusion Loss of appetite Visual disturbances. Risk for decreased cardiac output Risk for ...Digoxin. N. Joel Edwards DVM, DACVIM (Cardiology), in Small Animal Critical Care Medicine, 2009 PHARMACOLOGY. Digoxin is extracted from the leaves of the foxglove plant Digitalis lanata. The digoxin molecule is composed of a sugar and a cardenolide; its molecular formula is C 41 H 64 O 14 and its molecular weight is 780.95 Da. Digoxin …levels exceeding 5.5 mEq/L in adults or 6 mEq/L in children with rapidly progressive signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity. 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION For Intravenous Use OnlySteve Watson Digoxin 21 Cardiac Glycosides. Increase force and efficiency of myocardial contraction decrease HR. IV- give over at least 5 min. Diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, dopamine, verapamil. clients with disturbances in ventricular rhythm second and third degree heart block Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin increases intracellular calcium in myocardial cells indirectly, by inhibiting the sodium–potassium pump in the cell membrane. Increased intracellular calcium increases cardiac contractility, but also the risk of tachyarrhythmias. 8 Inhibition of this pump causes the hyperkalaemia commonly seen in toxicity. Digoxin also causes an increase …• Digoxin toxicity • Hypokalemia • Impaired kidney function • Infants, children and older adults • Acute MI and severe heart failure • Dysrhythmias such as incomplete heart block • Erythromycin and some other antibiotics increase digoxin levels • Other antidysrhythmics (verapamil, quinidine, amiodarone, flecainide) increase ... It is eliminated primarily through kidneys; therefore, it has a half-life of 36-48 hours in patients who have normal kidney function and 3.5-5 days in patients who are anuric. [ 2] Therapeutic levels of digoxin are 0.8-2.0 ng/mL. The toxic level is >2.4 ng/mL. [ 3] Next: Interpretation. Folk healers and physicians have used digitalis ...Toxicity and Overdose: Therapeutic serum digoxin levels range from 0.5–2 ng/mL. Serum levels may be drawn 6–8 hr after a dose is administered; usually drawn immediately before the next dose. Geri: Older adults are at increased risk for toxic effects of digoxin (on Beers list) due to age-related decreased renal clearance; may exist even when serum …Digoxin toxicity can be a life-threatening condition. Practitioners involved in monitoring digoxin use need to maintain a high level of suspicion for digoxin toxicity. This includes the ability to recognize toxicity regardless of whether digoxin concentrations fall within the therapeutic range. Digoxin dosing should be based on ideal body weight.The therapeutic range of digoxin is 0.5-2.0 ng/mL while Mrs. Kidway's digoxin level is 3.8 ng/mL- almost double the high end of the safe range. This has an effect on her electrolyte balance, specifically sodium and potassium beause digoxin blocks the sodium/ potassium ATPase pump.ATI medication template for nursing school active learning template: medication student digoxin review module ... Instruct client to observe for indications of digoxin toxicity. Download. Save Share. ATI - Medication Template - Digoxin - Skjervem. ... Monitor digoxin levels (maintain . therapeutic level) Check pulse rate and rhythm .ATI med template digoxin active learning template: medication ariel kushnir student digoxin (lanoxin. ... Hx/presence of digitalis toxicity/idiosyncratic reaction to digoxin, v-fib, v-tach (unless HF occurs unrelated to digoxin therapy) ... Monitor serum potassium levels. Normal cardiac rhythm, proper functioning of the heart .Digoxin is a medicine that can help people with certain heart issues. However, reaching and staying at normal digoxin levels can be a challenge. Various factors affect how much of the drug your body absorbs and excretes. Digoxin levels that are too high can be life-threatening. Contents Overview Procedure Details Risks / Benefits Recovery and ...Common side effects. These common side effects of digoxin happen in more than 1 in 100 people. There are things you can do to help cope with them: Feeling dizzy. Feeling or being sick (nausea or vomiting) Diarrhoea. Changes in your vision (including blurred vision and not being able to look at bright light)ATI Practice A Pharmacology 2. ... the medication and notify the provider for a heart rate of 55/min because this is an early indication of digoxin toxicity. D. Digoxin increases cardiac output and reduces heart rate. A respiratory rate of 20/min is not a cause for withholding the medication and contacting the provider. ... A digoxin level of 1 ng/mL is within the …Serum potassium levels should also be closely monitored for patients on digoxin because hypokalemia increases the effect of digoxin and can result in digoxin toxicity. Normal potassium level is 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L, and a result less than 3.5 should be immediately reported to the provider. Nurses should closely monitor signs of digoxin toxicity.Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside used as drug in case of heart problems, including congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation or flutter, and certain cardiac arrhythmias. It has a very narrow therapeutic window of the medication. Digoxin is toxic substance with well known cardiotoxic effect. In this work, pharmacology and toxicology of digoxin ...An overdose of digoxin is very dangerous. If too much or the wrong kind of medicine is taken, call the Poison Control Center right away (1-800-222-1222) or go to the nearest emergency room for treatment. If your child is unconscious or has a seizure, call 911. Store digoxin in its original container and away from direct sunlight or heat.Digoxin is derived from the leaves of a digitalis plant. Digoxin helps make the heart beat stronger and with a more regular rhythm. Digoxin is used to treat heart failure. Digoxin is also used to treat atrial fibrillation, a heart rhythm disorder of the atria (the upper chambers of the heart that allow blood to flow into the heart). WarningsThe nurse suspects the patient may have toxic levels of digoxin in the bloodstream when what is assessed? (Select all that apply.) A) Irregular heart rhythms B) Nausea C) Anorexia D) Headache E) Peripheral edema. D) Increase in cAMP Inamrinone is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks the enzyme phosphodiesterase. This blocking effect leads to an …Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medical history of atrial fibrillation and underlying heart failure. It is also indicated in the treatment of pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and other plant-derived cardiac glycoside poisonings. It is in the antidote class of medications. This activity ...2. Heart rate of 68 beats/min. 3. Digoxin level of 0.7 ng/mL. 4. Potassium level of 3.7 mEq/L. Vomiting and diarrhea. Vomiting and diarrhea can lead to hypokalemia, which increases the risk of digoxin toxicity. These symptoms, along with nausea, fatigue, and visual disturbances, also may precede digoxin toxicity and warrant further attention. An infant with congestive heart failure is receiving digoxin (Lanoxin). What does the nurse recognize as a sign of digoxin toxicity? A. repeating a dose if the child vomits within 30 minutes of the previous dose B. counting the apical heart rate for 30 seconds before administering the medication C. checking the respiratory rate and blood pressure before …The clinical manifestations digoxin toxicity are the same in infants, children, and adults, and the treatment is the same across all these age groups. [] Treatment of digoxin toxicity should be guided by the patient’s signs and symptoms and the specific toxic effects and not necessarily by digoxin levels alone.It is not removed significantly by dialysis. Hypokalemia increases toxicity. Digitalis toxicity is not a laboratory diagnosis but a clinical diagnosis. Treatment of digoxin overdose …Emphasize importance of taking digoxin exactly as prescribed. Warn about possible toxicity from taking too much and decreased effectiveness from takin too little. Instruct pt to take digoxin at the same time everyday to help increase compliance. Advise pt to consult prescriber before using other drugs including OTC products.The answer is A. Furosemide is a loop-diuretic and this medication wastes potassium. Remember hypokalemia (low potassium level) increases the risk of a patient developing Digoxin toxicity. Hypercalcemia (>10.2 mg/dL) and hypomagnesemia ( < 1.5 mg/dL)also increases Digoxin toxicity. 4. Your patient, who is 55-years-old, is prescribed to take .... Feb 1, 2022 · Monitor serum digoxin level (Normal therapeutic raDigoxin is a medicine that is used to treat heart failure or ar Signs and symptoms Digoxin toxicity is often divided into acute or chronic toxicity. In both of these toxicity, cardiac effects are of the greatest concern. With an acute ingestion, …Nov 28, 2022 · Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medical history of atrial fibrillation and underlying heart failure. It is also indicated in the treatment of pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and other plant-derived cardiac glycoside poisonings. It is in the antidote class of medications. This activity ... Digoxin levels are reported in µg/L. To c Digoxin is the oldest drug in cardiovascular medicine that is used in current clinical practice 1.. The use of digitalis generates changes in the electrocardiogram at therapeutic doses, especially at the level of the ST segment and the T wave.. It also decreases heart rate, and in the case of toxicity, it can generate a great variety of … Explanation: Therapeutic digoxin levels range from ...

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